Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 4th World Congress on Breast Cancer Holiday Inn Atrium, Singapore.

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Day 2 :

  • Causes of Breast Cancer | Innovative Therapeutic Approaches in Breast Cancer
Biography:

Ma Shijun received his BS from Wuhan University in China. He is currently a PhD candidate in School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University. His current research work focuses on the how hemodynamic shear stress influences tumor cell migration and adhesion.

Abstract:

Circulation of cancer cells in blood flow is an important phase for distant cancer metastasis, during which cancer cells are exposed to hemodynamic shear stress. Recent studies identified shear stress as the primary factor that damages circulating tumor cells in blood flow. However, it remains unclear whether shear stress can modulate properties and functions of tumor cells in a manner that might help tumor cells to exit circulation. In our study, we demonstrate that fluidic shear stress could positively regulate migration and extravasation of surviving tumor cells in circulation, and facilitate metastasis. We established a microfluidic circulatory system to apply physiological fluidic shear stress on breast cancer cells and mimic the physical environment in blood flow. An arterial level of shear stress generated in the circulatory system significantly increased tumor cell migration in both transwell and wound healing assays. We also observed that shear stress enhanced extravasation of breast tumor cells in a transendothelial assay. The mechanistic study identified the elevation of cellular ROS as an early molecular event induced by shear stress. The excessive cellular ROS subsequently activates ERK1/2 pathway, which leads to tumor cell migration and extravasation. Finally, by using a zebrafish model, we demonstrated that application of antioxidants could suppress shear stress-enhanced tumor cell extravasation in vivo. This new understanding of how fluidic shear stress promotes metastatic potential of tumor cells has important implications in cancer treatment and can help us identify latent therapeutic targets for inhibiting tumor progression.

Biography:

Kourosh Sayehmiri has expertise in design and analysis of systematic review and meta-analysis studies in breast cancer. He also performs several research in field of risk factors of breast cancer, survival analysis of breast cancer patients using cox proportional hazard models and accelerated failure time models

Abstract:

Different studies indicate some discrepancies regarding zinc (Zn) levels in various samples of breast cancer patients. Several researchers have shown blood and hair levels of Zn decrease in patients dealing with breast cancer while others have found the opposite. The present study analyzes the Zn level of breast tissue, plasma or serum and hair samples and its relationship with breast cancer using meta-analysis method. In the present meta-analysis of 31 articles, which are published in the years 1984 to 2015 selected by search in PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases and information analyzed I² statistics were calculated to examine heterogeneity. The analysis was performed on 31 studies of including 1699 cases and 2009 controls participants. In the present study we observed significant statistical difference overall base on random effects model (SMD (95% CI): -0.78[-1.40, -0.16]; P=0.014). Data from 19 studies were the significant statistical difference between serum and plasma Zn concentration (SMD (95%CI): -1.61(- 2.43, -0.79)). There was significant statistical difference between breast tissue and hair with Zn statuses (SMD (95%CI): 2.32(1.42, 3.21)) and (SMD (95%CI): -1.80 (-3.41, -0.20) respectively. It can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between Zn concentration and breast cancer risk.
Conclusions: This meta-analysis study provides evidence that the difference between Zn level in serum, hair and breast tissue among individuals with and without breast cancer is significant.

Biography:

Muthu K Shanmugam is a senior research fellow in the Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine. He got his Ph.D in cancer pharmacology and he is currently working as a senior research fellow. He has twelve years of experience in experimental laboratory research and have published in journal papers and presented at international conferences. Muthu K Shanmugam has vast experience in cancer biology, inflammatory diseases, orthotopic, xenograft and transgenic mice models, in molecular biology, cell and tissue culture experiments. In addition, he is trained in high-throughput technology such as cDNA microarray technology, antigen and antibody array technology, two dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetics and in the development of array based clinical diagnostic tools.

Abstract:

Several lines of evidence(s) indicate that CXCR4 overexpression has been correlated with distant site metastasis and poor overall survival rate in patient with breast cancer. The tumor metastasis promoting molecule CXCR4 is considered as a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis. Thus, novel agents that can down-regulate CXCR4 expression have potential against breast cancer metastasis. In the present report we investigated the effect of thymoquinone (TQ), derived from the seeds of medicinal plant
Nigella sativa, on the expression and regulation of CXCR4 in breast cancer cells. In addition, we evaluated the effect of TQ in a metastasis mouse model established by intracardiac injection of luciferase-tagged MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that metastasize to the bones. We observed that TQ could inhibit the expression of CXCR4 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. TQ (2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg) treatment for four weeks significantly inhibited tumor growth and significantly reduced metastases to multiple vital organs, including lungs, brain and bone. Immuno-histochemical analysis of the lung and brain tissue showed significant reduction in the expression of CXCR4, Ki67, MMP9, VEGFR2 and COX2 compared to tissues from control mice. TQ treatment also reduced the overall bone tumor burden. Overall, our results show that TQ exerts its antitumor and anti-metastatic effects by downregulation of CXCR4 expression both in vitro and in vivo thus may have possible potential for the treatment of breast cancer.
Acknowledgement: This work was supported by NUHS Basic Seed Research grant to Prof. Benny Tan.

Biography:

Muthu K Shanmugam is a senior research fellow in the Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine. He got his Ph.D in cancer pharmacology and he is currently working as a senior research fellow. He has twelve years of experience in experimental laboratory research and have published in journal papers and presented at international conferences. Muthu K Shanmugam has vast experience in cancer biology, inflammatory diseases, orthotopic, xenograft and transgenic mice models, in molecular biology, cell and tissue culture experiments. In addition, he is trained in high-throughput technology such as cDNA microarray technology, antigen and antibody array technology, two dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetics and in the development of array based clinical diagnostic tools.

Abstract:

Several lines of evidence(s) indicate that CXCR4 overexpression has been correlated with distant site metastasis and poor overall survival rate in patient with breast cancer. The tumor metastasis promoting molecule CXCR4 is considered as a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis. Thus, novel agents that can down-regulate CXCR4 expression have potential against breast cancer metastasis. In the present report we investigated the effect of thymoquinone (TQ), derived from the seeds of medicinal plant
Nigella sativa, on the expression and regulation of CXCR4 in breast cancer cells. In addition, we evaluated the effect of TQ in a metastasis mouse model established by intracardiac injection of luciferase-tagged MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that metastasize to the bones. We observed that TQ could inhibit the expression of CXCR4 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. TQ (2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg) treatment for four weeks significantly inhibited tumor growth and significantly reduced metastases to multiple vital organs, including lungs, brain and bone. Immuno-histochemical analysis of the lung and brain tissue showed significant reduction in the expression of CXCR4, Ki67, MMP9, VEGFR2 and COX2 compared to tissues from control mice. TQ treatment also reduced the overall bone tumor burden. Overall, our results show that TQ exerts its antitumor and anti-metastatic effects by downregulation of CXCR4 expression both in vitro and in vivo thus may have possible potential for the treatment of breast cancer.
Acknowledgement: This work was supported by NUHS Basic Seed Research grant to Prof. Benny Tan.